starts by summarizing basic concepts and paradigms of Islamic epistemology and methodology of research. It then discusses
the current crisis of knowledge and education in the ummat whose resolution will
be by Islamization of sciences. Islamization of sciences is defined as identifying biases in research methodology that reflect
a non-tauhidi parochial world-view. This is followed by Islamization of the disciplines
of knowledge which is reformulating basic epistemological concepts and paradigms of various disciplines from an Islamic tauhidi paradigm characterized by objectivity, istiqamat
al ma’arifat, and universality, ‘aalamiyyat al ma’arifat,
of knowledge. The paper concludes by a brief expose of the on-going experiment of an Islamic Input in the medical curricula.
WHAT IS ISLAMIC EPISTEMOLOGY?, nadhariyat al ma’arifat al islamiyyat
is the science of knowledge, ‘ilm al ‘ilm. It is the study of the origin,
nature, and methods of knowledge with the aim of reaching certainty. Islamic epistemology, nadhariyyat ma’rifiyyat Islamiyyat, is based on the tauhidi paradigm.
Its fixed parameters are from revelation, wahy. Its variable parameters are conditioned
by varying spatio-temporal circumstances. Its sources are revelation (Qur’an and sunnat), empirical observation and
experimentation, and human reason. Its main challenge today is achieving objectivity, al
istiqamat, which is staying on the path of truth and not being swayed by
whims and desires. Istiqamat comes only next to iman, as the Prophet said 'qul amantu bi al laahi thumma istaqim'.
NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE, tabi’at al ma’arifat al insaniyyat
The Qur’anic terms for knowledge are: ‘ilm,
ma’arifat, hikmat, basiirat, ra’ay, dhann, yaqeen, tadhkirat, shu’ur, lubb, naba’, burhan, dirayat,
haqq, and tasawwur. The terms for lack of knowledge are: jahl, raib, shakk, dhann, and ghalabat al dhann.
Grades of knowledge are ‘ilm al yaqeen, ‘ayn al yaqeen, and haqq al yaqeen. Knowledge is correlated
with iman, ‘aql, qalb, and taqwah.
The Qur’an emphasizes the evidential basis of knowledge, hujjiyat al burhan.
The seat of knowledge is the ‘aql,
and qalb. Allah’s knowledge
is limitless but human knowledge is limited. Humans vary in knowledge. Knowledge
is public property that cannot be hidden or monopolized. Humans, angels, jinn, and other living things have varying
amounts of knowledge. Knowledge can be absolute for example revealed knowledge. Other types of knowledge are relative, nisbiyat al haqiqat. The probabilistic nature of knowledge arises out of limitations
of human observation and interpretation of physical phenomena.
OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE, tarikh al ma’rifat al insaniyat
the first human to learn actively when he was taught the names of all things. Human knowledge after that grew by empirical
trial and error or through revelations. Development of language and writing played a big role in knowledge development. Publication
and telecommunication are responsible for the current knowledge revolution.
OF KNOWLEDGE, masadir al ma’arifat:
is from Allah. Humans can get it in a passive way from revelations or in an active way by empirical observation and experimentation.
Whatever knowledge they get is ultimately from Allah. Knowledge may be innate or acquired. Humans have knowledge of the creator
even before birth. Some human knowledge is instinct. Most human knowledge is learned as observation, ‘ilm tajriibi;
transmission, 'ilm naqli; or analysis
and understanding, 'ilm 'aqli. Seeking to know is an inner human need that
wahy, inference, ‘aql, and empirical
observation of the universe, kaun, are major sources of acquired knowledge accepted
by believers. In terms of quantity, empirical knowledge, ‘ilm tajriibi, comes
first. In terms of quality revealed knowledge, ‘ilm al wahy, comes first. There is close interaction and inter-dependence
between revelation, inference, and empirical observation. ‘Aql is needed
to understand wahy and reach conclusions from empirical observations. Wahy
protects ‘aql from mistakes and provides it with information about the unseen.
‘Aql cannot, unaided, fully understand the empirical world.
is lack of unanimity on the following as additional sources of knowledge: ‘ilm laduniy; inspiration, ilham; intuition, hadas; instinct, jabillat; geomancy, firasat; dreams, ru’uyat; and kashf. The controversy is not whether
they are sources of knowledge but whether they are sources independent of the three mentioned before. Magic & sorcery,
sihr; astrology, tanjiim; foretelling,
kahanat & tatayur; and other forms of superstition are not sources of true
knowledge. They may lead to correct and verifiable facts but only by chance and coincidence. They most often lead to wrong
and misguiding facts.
CLASSIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE, tasnif al marifat
can be innate or acquired. It can be ‘aqli or naqli. It can be knowledge of the seen, ‘ilm al shahadat, and knowledge of the unseen, ‘ilm al ghaib.
The unseen can be absolute, ghaib mutlaq, or relative, ghaib nisbi. Acquisition of knowledge may be individually obligatory,
fard ‘ain, whereas other
knowledge is collectively obligatory, fard kifayat. Knowledge can be useful,
‘ilmu nafiu. Knowledge can be basic or applied. There are many different
disciplines of knowledge. The disciplines keep changing with advance of knowledge and understanding. A discipline is defined
and is limited by its methodology.
LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE, mahdudiyat al marifat al bashariyyat
in many verses has reminded humans that their knowledge in all spheres and disciplines of knowledge is limited. Human senses
can be easily deceived. Human intellect has limitations in interpreting correct sensory perceptions. Humans cannot know the
unseen, ghaib. Humans can operate in limited time frames. The past and the future
are unknowable with certainty. Humans operate in a limited speed frame at both the conceptual and sensory levels. Ideas can
not be digested and processed if they are generated too slowly or too quickly. Humans cannot visually perceive very slow or
very rapid events. Very slow events like the revolution of the earth or its rotation are perceived as if they are not happening.
Human memory is limited. Knowledge acquired decays or may be lost altogether. Humans would have been more knowledgeable if
they had perfect memory.
METHODOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE, manhaj al ma’arifat
started with Adam naming and classifying all things followed by trial and error discoveries and later by systematic methodological
investigation. Inspired by the Qur’an, Muslims developed the empirical scientific methodology that triggered the European
reformation, renaissance, and scientific and technological revolution starting in the early 16th century CE. Francis
Bacon (1561-1626), the first European to write systematically about the empirical methodology was inspired by Muslim science
in his times. Europeans copied the empirical methodology without its tauhidi context,
rejected wahy as a source of knowledge, and later imposed badly-copied secularized science on the Muslim world. Ancient
Muslim scientists had shown that wahy, ‘aql, and empiricism were compatible and had used methodological tools
from the Qur’an to correct deficiencies and improve Greek science before passing
it on to Europeans. They replaced Aristotelian deductive logic and definitions with an Islamic inductive logic inspired by
METHODOLOGY FROM THE QURAN, manhaj qur’ani
provides general guiding principles and is not a substitute for empirical research. It enjoins empirical observation; liberates
the mind from superstition, blind following, intellectual dependency, and whims. Its tauhidi paradigm is the basis
for causality, rationality, order, predictability, innovation, objectivity, and natural laws. Laws can be known through wahy,
empirical observation and experimentation. The Qur’anic teaches the inductive methodology, empirical observation, nadhar & tabassur; interpretation tadabbur, tafakkur, i’itibaar & tafaquhu; and evidential knowledge, bayyinat & burhan). It condemns blind following, taqliid, conjecture, dhann; and personal whims,
hiwa al nafs. The Qur’anic
concept of istiqamat calls for valid and un-biased knowledge. The Qur’anic concepts of istikhlaf, taskhir, and isti’imar are a basis for technology. The concept of ‘ilm nafei underlies
the imperative to transform basic knowledge into useful technology.
FROM THE CLASSICAL ISLAMIC SCIENCES
sciences and their concepts are applicable to science and technology. Tafsir ‘ilmi and tafsir mawdhu’e
parallel data interpretation in empirical research. ‘Ilm al nasakh explains how new data updates old theories
without making them completely useless. ‘Ilm al rijaal can ascertain the trustworthiness of researchers. ‘Ilm naqd al
hadith can inculcate attitudes of critical reading of scientific literature. Qiyaas is analogical reasoning. Istihbaab is continued application of a hypothesis or scientific laws until disproved.
Istihsan is comparable to clinical intuition. Istislah
is use of public interest to select among options for example medical technologies. Ijma
is consensus-building among empirical researchers. Maqasid al shariat are conceptual tools for balanced use of S&T. Qawaid al shariat are axioms that simplify complex logical operations by using established axioms
without going through detailed derivations.
ISLAMIC CRITIQUE OF THE EMPIRICAL METHOD, naqd al manhaj al tajribi
methodological tools from the Qur’an and classical Islamic sciences, Muslims developed
a new empirical and inductive methodology in the form of qiyaas usuuli and also pioneered the empirical methods by experimentation and observation in
a systematic way as illustrated by the work on Ibn Hazm on optics. They criticize ancient Greek methodology as conjectural,
hypothetical, despising perceptual knowledge, and based on deductive logic. They accept the European scientific method of
formulating and testing hypothesis but reject its philosophical presumptions: materialism, pragmatism, atheism, rejection
of wahy as a source of knowledge, lack of balance, rejection of the duality between matter and spirit, lack of human
purpose, lacks of an integrating paradigm like tauhid, and being Euro-centric and not universal. European claims to
being open-minded, methodological, accurate, precise, objective, and morally neutral have been observed not to hold in practice.
In its arrogance it treats as absolute probabilistic and relativistic empirical knowledge based fallible human observation
3.0 CRISIS OF KNOWLEDGE and EDUCATION, azmat al ma’arifat wa al ta’aliim
OF THE CRISIS
is pervasive ignorance of uluum al diin and uluum
al dunia. There is little respect for scholarship. Wealth and power are considered more important than scholarship. There
is neglect of the empirical sciences. There is a dichotomy in the education system: traditional Islamic vs. imported European,
ulum al diin vs ulum al dunia. Integration
of the 2 systems has failed or has been difficult because it has been mechanical and not conceptual. The process of secularization in education has removed the moral dimension from the education and
violated the aim of Islamic education to produce an integrated and perfect individual, insan kaamil. The brain
drain from Muslim countries has compounded the educational crisis.
MALAISE DUE TO THE KNOWLEDGE CRISES
deficiency and intellectual weakness are the most significant manifestation of ummat’s
decadence. The intellectual crisis of the ummat is worsened by copying and using
poorly digested alien ideas and concepts. The prophet warned the ummat about the
lizard-hole phenomenon in which the ummat in later times would follow its enemies
unquestionably like the lizard running into its hole. Among the manifestations of the ummatic
malaise are action deficiency, political weakness, economic dependency, military weakness, dependence in science and technology,
and erosion of the Islamic identity in life-style.
of the Prophet (PBUH) was the best generation. The best teacher met the best students and excellent results were obtained.
Companions had excellent knowledge and understanding. Seeds of the current crisis appeared towards the end of the khilafat rashidat. New social and political forces overthrew the khilafat
rashidat and the ideals it represented were distorted or abolished. Then the authentic ‘ulama and opinion leaders who remained faithful to the ideals of Islam were marginalized and persecuted.
Intellectual stagnation then ensued. The process of secularization of the Muslim state progressed. Widespread ignorance and
illiteracy became common. Many non-Islamic ideas and facts without valid proof have found their way into the intellectual
and religious heritage of the ummat making the existing intellectual crisis even
STEPS TOWARDS REFORM OF KNOWLEDGE AND EDUCATION
KNOWLEDGE, A PRE REQUISITE FOR TAJDID
and revival of the ummat will occur through educational and knowledge reform. Tajdid is a recurring phenomenon in the ummat
and is a sign of its health and dynamism. It is a basic characteristic of the ummat
that periods of reform/revival alternate with periods of decay and return to jahiliyyat.
Tajdid requires knowledge, ideas and action related by the following mathematical
equation: tajdid = idea + action. Action without knowledge and guiding ideas will
not lead to true change. Ideas without action are not change at all. Tajdid requires
and is preceded by a reform in knowledge to provide ideas and motivation on which to build. All successful societal reform
starts with change in knowledge. The ideal society cannot be created without a knowledge base. That knowledge base must be
correct, relevant, and useful. Successful revival movements throughout Muslim history have always been led by scholars.
A NEW KNOWLEDGE STRATEGY, nahwa istratijiyyat ma’arifiyyat jadiidat
ummat is a potential economic and political bloc
whose potential is not yet realized. The contemporary tajdid movement has a
lot of strengths but also has basic deficiencies that must be corrected. The knowledge and intellectual crises are still a
barrier. Reform movements unguided by correct knowledge and understanding will falter and fail or will be deviated from their
paths. Social change requires change in attitudes, values, convictions and behavior of a critical mass of the population.
Attitudes, values, convictions, and behaviors are determined by the knowledge base. The vision of the knowledge strategy is
an upright balanced person who understands the creator, knows his place, his roles, his rights, and his responsibilities in
the cosmic order. The mission of the knowledge strategy is conceptual transformation of the education system from kindergarten
to post graduate studies to reflect tauhid, positive moral values, objectivity,
universality, and serving the larger causes of humanity.
TOWARDS AN ISLAMIC METHODOLOGY, nahwa manhajiyyat ‘ilmiyyat islamiyyat
universal, objective and unbiased methodology must replace the Euro-centric and philosophically biased context and not the
practical experimental methods. The precepts of tauhidi science are: unity of knowledge, comprehensiveness; causality
is the basis for human action, human knowledge is limited, investigation of causal relations is based on constant and fixed
natural laws, harmony between the seen and the unseen, 3 sources of knowledge (wahy, aql & empirical observation);
khilafat; moral accountability; creation and existence have a purpose, truth
is both absolute and relative, human free will is the basis of accountability, and tawakkul.
DEVELOPMENT OF A SCIENTIFIC CULTURE, nahwa thaqafat ‘ilmiyyat
is the basis for developing a vigorous and dynamic scientific culture in the ummat.
Basic concepts are the Qur’an, intellect, knowledge, fiqh, thinking, innovation and creativity. The Qur’an is
not a textbook of science. It however contains many verses that train the mind to observe, analyze, think and act in a scientific
manner. The Qur’anic stories have lessons, many scientific, for those who understand. Intellect is correlated with signs
and with knowledge. Failure to use the intellect and blind following are condemned. Knowledge is supreme. It removes blind
following. Human knowledge is limited. Knowledge is acquired by study. Humans were ordained to read. Knowledge by itself is
not useful unless it is associated with work. The Qur’an has used the term fiqh to refer to understanding which is deeper
than knowing. The Qur’an puts emphasis on thinking. Thinking is based on empirical observation. The Qur’an
emphasizes freedom of thought in the form of freedom of belief. Innovations in religion are prohibited but creativity is encouraged.
described mountains, the barrier between two oceans, metal, the wind, plants, the sky, honey, and water. It described the
motion of the earth, the boats, the sun, the moon, the water, and of the wind. It described processes such as making of iron,
armor, dams, and boats. It described the creation of the human from dust. It describes the constant laws of nature, sunan
al laah fi al kawn. The laws are fixed and stable and operate in various situations. Order is a law of nature. Recording
of observations is emphasized.
calls for evidence. It rejects false evidence and condemns non evidence-based knowledge such as sorcery, consulting fortune
tellers, speculation or conjecture. Human thought is a tool and not an end in itself. It operates on the basis of empirical
observations and revelation, both objective sources of information, thought that is not based on an empirical basis or revelation
is speculative and leads to wrong conclusions. The Qur’an calls for objectivity. It condemns following subjective feelings
and turning away from the truth. Reliance is on observation and not speculation. The Qur’an calls upon humans to observe
Allah’s signs in the universe and in humans. The Qur’an however made it clear that human senses have limitations.
Rational thinking and logical operations were described. In many prohibitions the Qur’an provides logical reasons. The
use of similitude, tashbiih, of two things and phenomena is seen several verses. The Qur’an also employed many
examples, mithl, to illustrate concepts. Prudence in reaching conclusions is emphasized.
OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE
and sunnat teach the etiquette of scientific discourse. Questions can be for finding out information. The opposing opinion
should be respected. Differences on scientific matters can arise and are natural. Discussion and exchange of views is a necessity
for humans. Discussion has its own etiquette. Truth must be revealed. Contradictions must be avoided. Arrogance is condemned.
The following are attributes of good discussion: objectivity, truthfulness, asking for evidence, and knowledge. Purposeless
disputation is frowned upon. False premises should be abandoned once discovered
Fear of people should be no reason for not revealing the truth. Deception is condemned. The truth of any assertion must be
checked. Yaqeen is the basis of ‘ilm but dhann is not.
6.0 ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE: CONCEPT & PRACTICE
CONCEPT OF ISLAMIZATION:
Islamization is a process of recasting the corpus of human knowledge to conform to the
basic tenets of ‘aqidat al tauhid. The process of Islamization does not call
for re-invention of the wheel of knowledge but calls for reform, correction, and re-orientation. It is evolutionary and not
revolutionary. It is corrective and reformative. It is the first step in the reform of the education system as a prelude to
reform of society.
6.2 HISTORY OF ISLAMIZATION
The 2-3rd centuries H witnessed a failed effort at Islamization of knowledge.
Greek scientific knowledge was transferred to Muslims together with Greek philosophy and ideas that caused confusions in ‘aqiidat.
Greek science depended more on philosophical deduction than experimentally-based induction. It discouraged the scientific
tarbiyat of the Qur’an which emphasized observation of nature as a basis for conclusions. The recent Islamisation
movement towards the close of the 14th century H aimed at de-europeanizing education systems and building an education
system based on tauhid.
Islamization has to start with reforming the epistemology, methodology, and corpus of knowledge
of each discipline. It must be pro-active, academic, methodological, objective, and practical. Its vision is objective, universal,
and beneficial knowledge in the context of a harmonious interaction of humans with their physical, social, and spiritual environment.
Its practical mission is transformation of the paradigms, methodologies, and uses of disciplines of knowledge to conform to
tauhid. Its immediate goals are: (a) de-Europeanizing paradigms of existing disciplines
to change them from parochiality to universal objectivity, (b) reconstruction of the paradigms using Islamic universal guidelines,
(c) re-classifying disciplines to reflect universal tauhidi values, (d) reforming research methodology to become objective,
purposeful, and comprehensive (e) growth of knowledge by research, and (f) inculcating morally correct application of knowledge.
The Qur’an gives general principles that establish objectivity and protect against biased research methodology. It creates
a world-view that encourages research to extend the frontiers of knowledge and its use for the benefit of the whole universe.
Scientists are encouraged to work within these Qur’anic parameters to expand the frontiers of knowledge through research,
basic and applied.
6.4 MISUNDERSTANDING THE REFORM PROCESS
Islamization has been misunderstood as rejection of the corpus of existing human knowledge
and disciplines. It has been misunderstood as creation of knowledge exclusive to Muslims. It has been misconstrued as rewriting
existing text-books to reflect Islamic themes without deep thought about the paradigms and methodology. It has also been confined
to spiritual reform of the student, scholar, or researcher. The following superficial approaches to civilization have been
tried and failed: ‘Insertion’ of Qur’anic verses and hadiths in an otherwise European piece of writing,
searching for scientific facts in the Qur’an, searching for Qur’anic proof of scientific facts, establishing Qur’anic
scientific miracles, searching for parallels between Islamic and European concepts, using Islamic in place of European terminologies,
and adding supplementary ideas to the European corpus of knowledge.
STEPS / TASKS OF THE REFORM PROCESS:
step is a good grounding in Islamic methodological sciences of of usul al fiqh, ‘uluum al Qur’an, ulum al hadith, and
'uluum al llughat. This is followed by reading the Qur’an and sunnat
with understanding of the changing time-space dimensions. This is followed by clarification of basic epistemological issues
and relations: wahy and aql, ghaib and shahada, ‘ilm
and iman. This is followed by an Islamic critique of basic paradigms, basic assumptions,
and basic concepts of various disciplines using criteria of Islamic methodology and Islamic epistemology. Islamic reviews
of existing text-books and teaching materials are then undertaken to identify deviations from the tauhidi episteme and the Islamic methodology.
output of the Islamization process will be Islamic introductions to disciplines, muqaddimat
al ‘uluum, establishing basic Islamic principles and paradigms that determine and regulate the methodology, content,
and teaching of disciplines. This parallels Ibn Khaldun’s Introduction to History, muqaddimat
presented generalizing and methodological concepts on historical events. Publication and testing of new text-books and other
teaching materials is a necessary step towards reform by putting into the hands of teachers and students reformed material.
Developing applied knowledge in science and technology from basic knowledge will be the last stage of the reform process.
This is because in the end it is science and technology that actually lead to changes in society.
7.0 STAGES IN THE ISLAMIZATION OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
HISTORY OF MEDICINE, tarikh al tibb
Pre-Islamic roots of medicine are found in ancient Egyptian, Babylon,
Chinese, Indian, Syriac, Persian, Arabian, and Greco-Roman civilizations. Medical knowledge in the early Islamic period (0
– 132 H) was based on traditional Arab medicine and medical teachings of the prophet. Medicine in the golden era of
the Abassid period (132 – 656 H) started with translation of Greek and other medical texts. Muslims added the results
of their observations and experimentation. Following the Tatar invasion and destruction of the capital of the khilafat
in Baghdad, the Muslim world went into a period of decline.
Medicine and medical knowledge also declined. Medical knowledge spread in Europe from Andalusia.
Muslims made many contributions to basic sciences and the various clinical disciplines.
PROPHETIC MEDICINE, tibb nabawi
Tibb nabawi refers to words and actions of the Prophet with a bearing on disease,
treatment of disease, and care of patients. The Prophet enunciated a basic principle
in medicine that for every disease there is cure. The sources of tibb nabawi
are revelation, empirical experience, and folk medicine of the Arabian Peninsula. Tibb nabawi can be spiritual, curative or preventive. Most of tibb nabawi
is preventive medicine. Tibb nabawi is an authentic and valid medical system. The general principles of this system
are applicable at all times and all places. The specific remedies taught by the Prophet (PBUH) are valid and useful. They
however can not be used today without undertaking further empirical research because of changes in the human and physical
ISLAMIC MEDICINE, mafhum al tibb al islami
is defined as medicine whose basic paradigms, concepts, values, and procedures conform to or to do not contradict the Qur’an
and Sunnah. It is not specific medical procedures or therapeutic agents used in a particular place or a particular time. Islamic
Medicine is universal, all-embracing, flexible, and allows for growth and development of various methods of investigating
and treating diseases within the frame-work described above. This definition calls for basic transformation of current medical
systems. Islamic Medicine thus becomes the result of an Islamic critique and reformulation of the basic paradigms, research
methodology, teaching, and practice of medicine. This process is called Islamization of Medicine. The end-result of the Islamization
process will not be a medical system for Muslims only but for the whole humanity because Islam is a set of universal and objective
7.4 ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN MEDICINE, islamiyyat
Muslims failed to Islamize Greek medicine when
they neglected the empirical scientific method of the Qur’an and adopted negative aspects of Greek philosophy that discouraged
experimentation. Guided by empirical scientific spirit of the Qur’an, Muslims must be innovative, creative, and researchers
in basic and applied medical sciences so that they may become leaders of the disciplines. A medical student starts by commitment
to discipline reform process. He must master your discipline well. He should then get basics of Islamic methodology from usul al fiqh, ‘uluum al Qur’an and ‘uluum al hadith to
be able to critique the basic paradigms of your discipline on the basis of tauhid
and the universal and perennial values of Islam. This is followed by research, publishing, teaching, networking, and inspiring
THE ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM
The vision of the curriculum has two closely related components: Islamization and legal medicine. Islamization
deals with putting medicine in an Islamic context in terms of epistemology, values, and attitudes. Legal medicine deals with
issues of application of the Law from a medical perspective. The curriculum has 5 objectives: (a) Introduction of Islamic
paradigms and concepts in general and as they relate to medicine (b) strengthening iman
through study of Allah’s sign in the human body (c) appreciating and understanding the juridical, fiqh, aspects of health and disease, al fiqh al tibbi (d) understanding the social issues in medical practice
and research (e) professional etiquette, adab al tabiib.
8.0 THE ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM
8.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE ISLAMIC INPUT CURRICULUM (IIMC)
The main motive of IIMC is to resolve the crisis of duality or
dichotomy manifesting as teaching Islamic sciences separately from medical disciplines by different teachers and in different
institutions. IIMC resolves the crisis of duality by insisting that Islamic concepts should be taught by the same people who
teach medical disciplines. All lecturers in the Kulliyah of Medicine go through a Diploma in Islamic Studies (DIS) whose modules
are exactly the same as the modules of IIMC. This prepares them to be effective teachers of IIMC.
The teaching material of IIMC has been prepared and tested over the
past 7 years. Synopses of all lectures for years 1 -5 are available at http://omarkasule.tripod.com.
Since the start of the Kulliyah in 1997, we have worked towards
integrating Islamic values and concepts in the teaching and examination of basic and clinical medical sciences. The expectation
is that our graduates will be able to integrate Islamic moral and legal values in their practice of medicine because they
went through an integrated education system.
IIMC follows the Islamic paradigm of reading 2 books, the book
of revelation, kitaab al wahy, and the book of empirical science, kitaab al kawn. Both books contain signs of Allah, ayaat al llaah,
and must be read together. It is a mistake to read one of the books and neglect the other. The solution to the crisis of duality
in the ummah starts from joint reading of the 2 books, al jam ‘u baina al qira
atain. Thus medical scientists who are involved in IIMC read the signs in both books.
The vision of IIC has two separate but closely related components: Islamization and legal medicine.
Islamisation deals with putting medicine in an Islamic context in terms of epistemology, values, and attitudes. Legal medicine
deals with issues of application of the Law (fiqh) from a medical perspective.
IIMC has 5 main objectives: (a) introduction
of Islamic paradigms and concepts in general as they relate to medicine, mafahiim Islamiyat
fi al Tibb. (b) strengthening faith, iman, through study of Allah’s sign
in the human body (c) appreciating and understanding the juridical, fiqh, aspects
of health and disease, al fiqh al tibbi. (d) understanding the social issues in medical practice and research and (e)
Professional etiquette, adab al tabiib, from
the Islamic perspective.
We feel that IIC helps the future physician prepare for the heavy trust, the amanat of being professionally competent. He must be highly motivated. He must have personal, professional, intellectual,
and spiritual development programs. He must know the proper etiquette of dealing with patients and colleagues. He also must
know and avoid professional malpractice. He needs to be equipped with leadership and managerial skills to be able to function
properly as a head of a medical team.
8.2 DERIVATION OF MEDICAL ETHICS FROM THE MAQASID AL SHARI’AT
In my view the most significant aspect of IIMC is the derivation of medical ethics from Islamic sources
as al alternative to western sources. The full impact of this will be appreciated in due course when these ideas become widely
Secularized European law denied moral considerations associated with ‘religion’
and therefore failed to solve issues in modern medicine requiring moral considerations. This led to the birth of the discipline
of medical ethics that is neither law enforceable by government nor morality enforceable by conscience. On the other hand,
Islamic Law is comprehensive and encompasses moral principles directly applicable to medicine.
of medical ethics in Islam should be based on the 5 purposes of the Law, maqasid al shari’at, that are also considered
the 5 purposes of medicine, maqasid al tibb. The 5 purposes are preservation of
religion and morality, hifdh al ddiin; preservation of life and health, hifdh al nafs; preservation of progeny,
hifdh al nasl; preservation of intellect, hifdh al ‘aql; and preservation of wealth, hifdh al maal.
Any medical action must fulfill one of the above purposes if it is to be considered ethical. If any medical procedure violates
any of the 5 purposes it is deemed unethical.
practical detailed situations, legal axioms called Principles of the Law or qawa’id
al shari’at need to be used to resolve mostly situations of apparent conflict between maqasid or to assist logical reasoning. Principles of the Law, qawa’id al shari’at, when applied to
the medical area can also be referred to as Ethical Principles of Medicine, qawa’id
al tibb. The basic ethical principles of Islam relevant to medical practice be derived from the 5 principles of the Law,
qawa’id al shari’at, that are: intention, qasd; certainty, yaqeen;
injury, dharar; hardship, mashaqqat; and custom or precedent, ‘aadat. The maqasid and qawa’id are used in a synergistic way. The basic purpose of qawa’id
is to provide robust rules for resolving situations of conflict between or among different maqasid.
before Muslim physicians is to liberate themselves from confusing and inconsistent European ethical theories and principles
and instead to work hard to develop specific regulations for various medical interventions, dhawaabit al tibaabat,
by a renewal of ijtihad. This ijtihad will be based on primary sources of the Law (Qur’an and sunnat),
secondary sources of the Law based on transmission, masaadir naqliyyat (ijma and qiyaas); secondary sources
of the Law based on reason, masaadir ‘aqliyyat (istishaab, istihsaan, & istilaah); the purposes of
the Law, maqasid al shari’at; principles of the Law, qawa’id al fiqh; as well as regulations of
the Law, dhawaabit al fiqh.
early period of medical jurisprudence (0-1400 H) most issues could be resolved by direct reference to the primary sources.
In the middle period (1401 – 1420 H) issues were resolved by using ijma, qiyaas, istishaab, istihsaan, & istilaah.
In the modern period (1420 - ) medical technology is creating so many issues whose resolution will require a broad bird’s
eye-view approach that can only be found in the theory of maqasid al shari’at.