0802-Issues in Medical, Surgical, and Other Treatments

Background material by Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. for Year 1 Semester 2 PPSD session on Wednesday 6th February 2008


Medical treatment may involve destruction (antibiotics, cytotoxics, anti-metabolites, antagonists, antitoxins, and detoxification), replacement (hormones, fluids, and electrolytes), biological modification & modulation, psycho-active therapy, and supportive treatment (diet, rest, ext.


It is prohibited to use forbidden (haram) materials and filth (najasat) as treatment. What is prohibited as food or drink is also prohibited as medicine. Exceptions are made in cases of necessity (dharuurat).


Medicine taken orally does not nullify ablution (wudhu). Any medicine that is taken but is not swallowed and is vomited out is considered like vomitus and will therefore nullify puasa. Medicine given per rectum nullifies ablution (wudhu). Subcutaneous or intravenous or intramuscular injections do not nullify ablution (wudhu) unless there is extensive external bleeding. Any medicine taken orally or rectally or any insertion of a lubricated scope will nullify puasa.



Permitted surgical procedures include resection, restorative/reconstructive surgery, transplantation, blood transfusion, anesthesia, and critical care.


Transfusion of whole blood or blood components is widely accepted and raises few legal or ethical issues. Blood donation is analogous to organ donation by a living donor. Transfused blood is not considered filth, najasat, because it is not spilled blood. Blood transfusion is allowed on the basis of necessity, dharuurat. There is no problem in blood donation between people of different religions because they share human brotherhood or between people of different genders. Blood transfusion does not abrogate the wudhu of the donor or the recipient. Sale of blood could be permitted in some places using the analogy of sale of milk by wet nurse who is paid for her services but is highly discouraged.

Attempts must be made to minimize inappropriate mixing of male and female health care personnel in a small confined space of the operating theater.


In emergency treatment/critical care, financial considerations complicate the picture when destitute patients who cannot pay present at the emergency room.



Supplication, doa, special recitations, ruqyah, reliance on God, tawakkul, and hope, raja are spiritual treatments.


Immunization and other preventive measures are treatment before disease and are not denial of pre-determination, qadar.


It is permitted to slaughter on behalf of the sick to seek God’s mercy and to give the meat to the poor. It is prohibited to slaughter for the jinn and the shaitan.


Various traditional, alternative, and complementary therapies are permitted if they are of benefit.


Other permitted treatment modalities are irradiation, immunotherapy, and genetic therapy.

ŠProfessor Omar Hasan Kasule, Sr. February, 2008