Laryngeal, pharyngeal, or other oral diseases may impair the ability to recite the
Qur’an. Patients with such conditions cannot be prayer leaders. Public duties like leadership that require communication
may be impaired. Pleas and evidence in court may also be affected.
Chronic inflammatory joint disease
Chronic inflammatory disease of peripheral joints affects social and religious obligations because of wide spread effects.
It is associated with the following non-joint manifestations: necrosis in finger tips due to vascular inflammation, chronic
leg ulcers, lesions of peripheral nerves, pericariditis, inflammation of the sclerae, formation of inflammatory nodules in
the lungs and the pleurae, lymphnode enlargement, splenomegaly, and Sjogren’s syndrome.
Degenerative joint disease is a chronic non-inflammatory condition. It
is characterized by destruction of the joint cartilage, reactive formation of bony spikes at the margins of the joint. It
is the commonest joint disease being found in 40-50% of adults.
Impact of joint disease
Salat is intimately related to joints because of the physical movements involved. Chronic inflammatory and degenerative
joint disease are associated with painful and restricted joint movements. These limit the physical actions needed for salat
Tayammum is carried out in cases in which either hot or cold water worsen joint pain.
Traumatic injury to ligaments may limit movements in salat.
Arthroplasty and arthrodesis are surgical procedures carried out for joint disease. Arthroplasty is restoration of
normal joint motion. Athrodesis is fusion of a joint to eliminate normal movements in order to minimize pain. Patients who
undergo these operations should receive pre-operative counseling about limitations in movements that will require changing
the way they pray.
Degenerative disorders of the vertebral column such as spondylosis (arthritis of
the spine), intervertebral disc disease (herniation), spondylolisthesis (anterior displacement) impair ability to stand for
long periods in salat as well as circumbulation of the kaaba, tawaaf,
and the trot between the hillocks of Safa amd Marwa, sa’ay.